Circulation Pathways of Trematodes of Freshwater Gastropod Mollusks in Forest Biocenoses of the Ukrainian Polissia

Zhytova, E. P., Romanchuk, L. D., Guralska, S. V., Andreieva, O. Yu., Shvets, M. V.



This is the first review of life cycles of trematodes with parthenitae and larvae in freshwater gastropods from forest biocoenoses of Ukrainian Polissia. Altogether 26 trematode species from 14 families were found circulating in 13 ways in molluscs from reservoirs connected with forest ecosystems of the region. Three-host life cycle is typical of 18 trematode species, two-host life cycle has found in 7 species, and four-host cycles has found in one species. Alaria alata Goeze, 1782, has three-host (Shults, 1972) and four-host cycles. Opisthioglyphe ranae (Froehlich, 1791) can change three-host life cycle to two-host cycle replacing the second intermediate host (Niewiadomska et al., 2006) with the definitive host. Species with primary two-host life cycle belong to Notocotylidae Luhe, 1909, Paramphistomidae Fischoeder, 1901 and Fasciolidae Railliet, 1758 families. Trematodes with three-host cycle have variable second intermediate hosts, including invertebrates and aquatic or amphibious vertebrates. Definitive hosts of trematodes are always vertebrates from different taxonomic groups. The greatest diversity of life cycles is typical for trematodes of birds. Trematodes in the forest biocoenoses of Ukrainian Polissia infect birds in six ways, mammals in three, amphibians in four, and reptiles in one way. The following species have epizootic signifi cance: Liorchis scotiae (Willmott, 1950); Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha Ejsmont, 1932; Notocotylus seineti Fuhrmann, 1919; Catatropis verrucosa (Frolich, 1789) Odhner, 1905; Cotylurus cornutus (Rudolphi, 1808); Echinostoma revolutum (Frohlich, 1802) Dietz, 1909; Echinoparyphium aconiatum Dietz, 1909; Echinoparyphium recurvatum (Linstow, 1873); Hypoderaeum conoideum (Bloch, 1782) Dietz, 1909; Paracoenogonimus ovatus Kasturada, 1914; Alaria alata Goeze, 1782.