We identifi ed major factors (both direct and indirect), caused by the hostilities in Ukrainian ATO zone that adversely infl uence local biodiversity and environment. Damaged conservational territories (objects of nature conservation fund) were assessed. One of the most severe factors, the fires were studied using data from Terra MODIS remote sensing, resulting in a model of localization and spatial confi guration of fi res on natural and agricultural territories in ATO zone during June-September 2014. In that period, 2901 ignitions were registered in ATO zone, exceeding the numbers for previous four years. It was determined that 81 % of all of the ignitions happened on natural steppe and forest areas, 19 % in settlements. Th e fi res damaged 18 % of forest area, 23 % of the steppe area and 14 % of arable lands of ATO zone. For two snake species of Red book of Ukraine — eastern Elaphe dione and more widespread Hierophis caspius — it was shown that most of the animals and their biotopes in Luhansk and Donetsk Regions of Ukraine are under threat. Far example, 65–82 % of 108 fi nds of these Colubridae registered in the eastern Ukraine are located in the ATO zone and near to hostilities. GIS models also showed that more than 50 % of biotopes, suitable for these snakes, are in the ATO zone or near it. Based on world-wide experience and our own observations, we safely assume that the events of 2014 in the ATO territory can possibly cause far-reaching adverse consequences for natural landscapes, local fl ora and fauna, and the massive local disappearance of plant and animal populations.